Florimon, 24, batted .267 with a .344 on-base percentage and .396 slugging percentage in 133 games with Double-A Bowie last season. He also hit eight homers, 27 doubles and three triples with 15 stolen base in 27 attempts.
The switch-hitter saw action in four games with the Orioles as a September callup, hitting .125 with a double and two RBIs in eight at-bats.
"He's very athletic," Twins general manager Terry Ryan said. "He's a switch-hitter. He's got skills, there's no doubt about that. So here's an opportunity to get a guy on a waiver claim, and we like things that we have seen from him in the past. He's got versatility. He's got makeup, and that's why we claimed him."
In six seasons in the Orioles' Minor League system, Florimon is a career .247/.322/.354 hitter. He also has a career .942 fielding percentage, and posted a .959 fielding percentage with 26 errors in 129 games at shortstop last year.
With the move, the Twins currently have 39 players on their 40-man roster.